Session 3 Focus Tasks
1. Explain Media Richness in your own words.
Media Richness Theory is the theory that the media used in communicating information can be measured on a scale of richness. A media rich environment is one in which multiple cues, verbal and non-verbal, are delivered simultaneously. A less rich media for giving information would be email. Because email is text-based, it does not offer the multiple cues such as body language, voice tone, cadence, and volume, and facial expression, that is offered in face-to-face communication. Richness is perceived by measuring the number of cues that exist in communication media. It also looks at the impact that the richness of media has on the effectiveness of conveying a message. This is something that must be considered when developing electronic education. A teacher may say something intended to be funny in a traditional classroom and have it be perceived as humorous because of his or her body language, facial expression, and tone of voice. The same comment in a text-based environment may be taken seriously.
2. What are the four criteria used to judge Media Richness?
The four criteria used in judging Media Richess include; instant feedback, the ability that the media has to transmit cues that provide information to the person receiving the message including body language, emoticons, and facial expressions, to what level the communicator is able to use natural language within that medium, and the intended use or focus of the medium.
3. Choose 4 or 5 technologies you might use in an online class and rate them on the four criteria. Using these ratings suggest some eLearning activity that might or might not be appropriate for each technology you rate. Explain your reasons.
|Media||Instant Feedback||Communicative Cues||Natural Language Use||Focus of the Medium|
|Podcasts||No – Some asynchronous feedback in comments is possible.||Yes – The audience would be able to pick up cues from facial expressions, tone, etc.||Yes – Natural Language could be more freely used in this environment.||Podcasts are designed to be mini-videos. They can be very useful for instruction.|
|Yes – People have the option to reply or not. It may be almost immediate or it may take some time for a response to be made.||Some – Using italics or all caps can denote emphasis. In general though, there are not many communicative cues provide beyond the text of the email.||Yes – People can generally communicate using natural language in email.||Email is useful for communicating information between two or more people. While it lacks the immediacy and friendliness of a face-to-face conversation, it is very good for communicating information particularly when the information isn’t likely to be misunderstood.|
|Blackboard Collaborate||Yes – Students can IM comments and questions as the person speaks. They can also electronically lift their hands to be called on. It mimics the traditional classroom.||Yes – The students get to see and hear their instructor. They also may be shown PPT’s or other learning aids within the confines of the media.||Yes – People communicate using natural language in Blackboard Collaborate.||The medium was designed to provide a similar means of communication as exists in a traditional classroom. It can be very useful.|
|Not really – Students may be able to comment but the initial communication may be the only communication.||Some – There are visuals provided in pictures that can be very communicative. Something like this would probably work best with a blog or discussion component attached to it.||No – Images would provide the communication. Language would be used only minimally.||The focus of Instagram is social. However, it can be helpful for a class in which imagery is important. Science student s could take send and group pictures from an archaeological site. Design students could submit images for their fellow students to evaluate.|
|Blogs||Some – There is the possibility for feedback. This is especially true when it is a class requirement. However, it will not be instantaneous.||Some – Blogs are text-based. Some blogs will include pictures, video, or sound to give emphasis to the topic being discussed and to somewhat convey the personality of the blogger.||Yes – Natural language is generally used when blogging, especially in a classroom situation.||Blogs are fairly social in nature. Bloggers often have followers who will comment or ask questions about the blog topic. Comments on the blog allows for greater student-student and teacher-student interactio|
4. Explain Social Presence in your own words.
The theory of Social Presence is representative of the communication established between the medium and the audience. It is the measurable amount of impact that the medium has on the observer. It incorporates the idea that the audience brings expectations of the medium into the learning environment, and that their expectations will influence the overall impact of the communication. Essentially, the theory is used to determine if the appropriate medium was used to effectively communicate the message to the audience by establishing the perceived reaction of the audience.
This is a good PPT presentation on Social Presence from Starr Hiltz of the New Jersey University of Technology. https://web.njit.edu/~hiltz/CRProject/Vc_video/sld004.htm
5. Explain the difference between Social Presence and Media Richness.
Media Richness Theory has to do with the number of cues that are available for the audience to observe and learn from through the use of a particular medium. Social Presence theory is more about the impact of the medium on the audience and determining if the impact on the audience is what the communicator intended. Social Presence Theory seeks to establish whether or not the medium is effective in communicating the information.
6. Provide some Issues or Trends in eLearning that you are interested in pursuing for your annotated bibliography.
This is a link to trends in Elearnging that I enjoyed reading. http://elearningindustry.com/top-8-elearning-and-edtech-trends-2015. The section on wearable educational tools was especially interesting! The following are topics I am interested in researching.
a. I am interested in learning more about how students seek and use information in an open access environment such as the free Internet.
b. I would like to create stand-alone modules for Information Literacy and develop a reliable mechanism for measuring learning.
c. I am interested in how language impacts learning. I notice disconnects among English Language Learners using academic databases. I also see students using colloquial English have a challenging time with formal academic language.
7. I chose to focus my annotated bibliography on creating stand-alone modules to teach information literacy to college students. These are citations to articles that I thought would be useful in my research. These articles all discuss the topic, I would like to research. They focus on actually setting up the modules, what others have found effective, and how students learn with online instructional modules. I am a librarian who works with distance students. However, I also see this type of module being useful for all of our students. There is an expectation that a great many resources will be available online. For libraries to remain viable, we must be prepared to meet these expectations. The articles listed below should support me in my effort to more effectively support my students.
Jeffrey, L., Hegarty, B., Kelly, O., Penman, M., Coburn, D., & McDonald, J. (2011). Developing Digital Information Literacy in Higher Education: Obstacles and Supports. Journal Of Information Technology Education, 10383-413.
Johnston, N. (2010). Is an Online Learning Module an Effective Way to Develop Information Literacy Skills?. Australian Academic & Research Libraries, 41(3), 207-218.
Kelley, J. (2012). Off the Shelf and out of the Box: Saving Time, Meeting Outcomes and Reaching Students with Information Literacy Modules. Journal Of Library & Information Services In Distance Learning, 6(3-4), 335-349.
Ladell-Thomas, J. (2012). Do-It-Yourself Information Literacy: Self-Directed Learning at a Distance. Journal Of Library & Information Services In Distance Learning, 6(3-4), 376-386.
Mussell, J., & Croft, R. (2013). Discovery Layers and the Distance Student: Online Search Habits of Students. Journal Of Library & Information Services In Distance Learning, 7(1-2), 18-39.
Tirado, A. U., & Munoz, W. C. (2011). Identifying Information Behavior in Information Search and Retrieval through Learning Activities Using an E-learning Platform Case: Interamerican School of Library and Information Science at the University of Antioquia (Medellin-Colombia). Education Libraries, 34(1), 33-49.